Nils Gilman is an intellectual historian at Berkeley and author of 'Deviant Globalization,' which explores the global black market economy and how it is negatively affecting traditional state authority. Nils Gilman defines deviant globalization as "the global flow of repugnant goods and services." According to Gilman, globalization has taken black market economies from small, local "mom and pop" schemes to a interconnected illicit economy made up of interconnected supply chains, and is growing at twice the rate of the regular economy.
Examples of deviant economies include pharma (illegal drugs), mining ("blood diamonds"), fashion (counterfeit goods), relocation (illegal immigration) and the illegal healthcare industry. Another important example is the deviant finance industry, which brings black market money into the mainstream economy. Nils Gilman says that these newly interconnected black markets all have common structural elements and downsize the role of the state, which he calls the "hollowing out of the developmental state."