James Hughes is a graduate of Leeds Beckett University and his latest project is the Hostile Bench made with metal spikes. The reason of this bench's discouraging structure is to spotlight the problem that exists in urban design processes. The Hostile Bench is comprised of a seat adorned in metal spikes beneath a translucent surface to sit on. Hostile architecture around cities are made to discourage people from using them in ways beyond sitting, highlighting the aggressive design towards homelessness.
To shed light on the matter, Hughes having studied product design made a piece of furniture that is comfortable for all purposes while visually representing something that isn't. The Hostile Bench has a body constructed from concrete with no intruding armrests or gaps for discomfort -- made for both sitting and sleeping. Additionally, it has two end pieces that sit tall to be attached to protect people from the windy or rainy weather.