Weather is one of the most complex and difficult systems that scientists deal with, but the Aeolus satellite's mission is to make weather prediction and assessment easier. The Aeolus satellite will provide the first ever worldwide view of how atmospheric dynamics, and particularly wind, work on Earth.
Though meteorologists have models that account for the wind's movement, these have never been thoroughly proven through observation. The Aeolus satellite is dedicated to measuring the winds around the world through the use of lidar, which is a form of radar that uses lasers to track particles. The project hopes to learn about global wind patterns, cloud behavior, and the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere.
Since the Aeolus satellite is slated for launch by the end of 2017, the answers to those question are currently blowing in the wind.