Throughout history many different dyes and colors have been created using natural minerals and resources; this pigment chart put together by Vertiable Hokum dives into the history of color and how popular shades were made way back when.
Back in the day a pigments were often made by crushing up objects, minerals and resources that were readily around -- even if that include using poison ones. The 'Mummy Brown and Other Historical Colors' infographic is arranged chronologically and shares how various shades were made in ancient times. For example, vermillion use to be made using mercury and Tyrian purple was made using crushed snail shells while the cover was reserved exclusively for Roman emperors. The chart shares historical tidbits from Ancient Egyptian areas all the way to pioneer times.