The MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory created modular robots that are able to move in groups. The modular robots are in cube shapes, and they can organize and communicate to assemble different shapes. There are 16 individual blocks that interact using barcodes to identify similar robots. This gives them the ability to move over other blocks. The cubes also have the ability to make short jumps.
MIT's modular robots are able to execute tasks, and even organize into different shapes based on external signals. The Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence laboratory believe technology like this could be further developed and used to create self-assembling materials, where structures or bridges could be constructed by the material itself.
Image Credit: MIT CASIL