The Lighting System is designed to improve Circadian Rhythm Control, regulating astronaut's sleep cycles as they work on ISS, the International Space Station. During long spaceflights with the lack of true diurnal sunlight cycles, there is the possibility of developing sleep disorders among the crew aboard.
Melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep cycles, which is inhibited by cool white light. The same factors are experimented with on Earth as well, using the technology to treat sleep disorders such as delayed sleep, jet lag, phase syndrome, and more. The technology by NASA is a programmable solid state illumination system that has full color temperature control and intensity. These components are fully adjustable with the microcontroller.
Image Credit: NASA Technology Transfer Program