Scientist, inventor and entrepreneur Alex Wissner-Gross talks intelligence -- both human and artificial -- in his measuring intelligence keynote. Wissner-Gross attempts to create a formula that equates intelligence with "a force to maximize future freedom of action."
He talks about the progress of human and artificial intelligence and how computers were invented that beat master chess players by maximizing future possibilities during the game (different moves that could be made). He posits the theory that the universe is optimized for the development of intelligence.
Wissner-Gross goes on to use hypothetical thought experiments in his measuring intelligence keynote. He comes up with a possibly mathematical formula to measure the intelligence of a human or a machine. He argues that general intelligence may come from the urge to control all possible outcomes, like people increasing their intelligence to solve problems big and small.